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Scenarios indicate how new applications will be developed and how to implement them. It points out each technology 's distinguishing characteristics, advantages and disadvantages, to help you determine if a certain implementation is feasible and what performance level you might expect. The book features an informative discussion on how mobile network operators plan ongoing services and manage resources.

Moreover, you learn how Internet providers, portal operators and content providers develop the right platforms for multimedia services, content aggregation and selection towards mobile Internet applications. In addition, future trends are considered. This book is an authoritative, practical reference for all your current and future projects in the field. The Driving Factor of Mobility. Innovation Drivers. Internet Market Developments. Fixed and Mobile Convergence. Ubiquitous Computing Appliances Devices. Addressing and Registration Standards.

Standards for Information Encoding. Examples: WAP and i-mode. Since the Internet as a whole has doubled in size every year. In it reached to million host computers, each having the capacity to connect several individual users. During the same period, the Web grew as fast: In just 10 years, from to , users created more than 2 billion Web pages containing information, entertainment, and advertising.

No one knows how many people have contributed to this growth. No communications medium has ever grown as quickly; nor has any other electronicsrelated market. Computer interworking was originally based on leased lines or on accessing the public telephone network.


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Over time, data networking based on IP became its own infrastructure; a heterogeneous network called the Internet came into existence. Merged voice and data will emerge in multimedia. A typical characteristic of the Internet is that data is split up into packets, which do not need a line exclusively for themselves. Packets from hundreds of sources are mixed up by the computer and shoved into a pipe either the transmission line or the air interface.

The router at the other end of the line receives each one, reads its address, and sends it in the right direction. All packet-switched networks follow this principle of data transmission and routing, most of them using the IP protocol. Finally, the server receives the packets from many sources, usually with a far higher bit rate than if transmitted from a single source, and reassembles them appropriately. A main advantage of the packet-switched mode is that the end-to-end user connection is established as a virtual connection, which allows the user to be in an always-on mode.

Many new services need such a function, because it saves network resources e. The connectionless IP provides the flexibility for multiservice transport and switching that is important for multimedia. In multimedia communications, several virtual connections have to be managed at the same time. In the circuit-switched mode, which is used mainly for voice connections, the entire bandwidth of the individual channel is dedicated to one The Market for UC 27 connection for the duration of a call: This is a physical connection.

After clearing the call, the channel remains free until another connection is set up. The transmission bit rate remains constant throughout the connection. The exclusive use of a channel guarantees quality of service like throughput and short and constant delay time, but this can tax the total capacity utilization of the system. It consumes resources used to prevent blocking, especially in cases of bursty traffic and long session durations. It is therefore inefficient for always-on applications. The circuit-switched telephone system was designed specifically to satisfy the human ear.

The same goal was valid for the mobile networks in their beginnings. Nowadays, with data communications, the advent of packet switching, and the multiplicity of different traffic bit rates, there is more than one set of criteria to satisfy. The data rate needed for voice communication is intolerable for transferring high-resolution images or audio and video with satisfying quality. Conversely, the degree of network latency may not be adequate for real-time voice or video and audio streaming. Quality of service QoS , therefore, becomes an important topic for packet-switched infrastructures.

The most important quality of service requirements are the availability of the network, the throughput defined in bits per second, the latency which is for voice less than ms , the jitter, and the packet-loss.

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The sensitivities of services and applications vary depending on traffic type. To cope with the varying requirements, the new approach of multiprotocol label switching is increasingly applied to the infrastructures. They probably wish to have access to the Internet via their mobile phone as well. Internet access includes e-mail and file transfer services, chat, voice over IP VoIP , Web browsing, and retrieval of specified information that may be provided on an ongoing basis via a Web-based information service.

Table 2. For mobile users, this could include information that is relevant to traveling, such as timetables, traffic updates, hotel and restaurant listings, or urgent data, such as meeting schedules and stock prices. With wireless access to the Internet, the roaming user comes into play. The personalization of information will become a new business factor. The greater the value, the more willing the user will be to pay for the service. The Web is unquestionably the fastest growing part of the Internet. Today, Web browsing is the leading Internet application, together with e-mail, followed by entertainment and work.

More than 2 billion Web pages already exist currently in the worlds Internet market. CERN created the idea of Web sites. The first premiered at Stanford University on December 12, The Market for UC 29 The biggest market for the Internet is information, advertising, and marketing, and business is already thriving in these areas. Most of the corporate home pages on the Web amount to little more than the usual marketing gloss, polished to an extra shine by electronic means.

E-commerce-enabled Web sites facilitate the buying and selling of goods and services, the processing and authorizing of purchase transactions, and, where possible, the digital distribution of the product. E-commerce will be the cornerstone for mobile commerce. Financial institutions and retailers are experimenting with virtual malls, and although user acceptance of the Internet in promoting this trend is still uncertain, it is clear that a key driver of future multimedia services will be the demand for alternative, cheaper means of marketing and distributing goods and services.

The success of multimedia services based on financial transactions is predicated on the ability of the industry to allay current user concerns about the security of Web-based transactions. The many facets of commerce include business-to-business B2B , business-to-employee B2E , and business-to-customer B2C , where consumer behavior plays a critical part in its acceptance.

The network operator, however, will first have to be content with a small transaction margin of new m-commerce businesses.


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  • Clearly, profitability in this case will be strongly dependent on volume i. Intranets offer large organizations two distinct advantages that the Internet does not: 1. Because intranets are inside inherently secure organizational networks, intranets can offer valuable information many companies simply would not want to make available to outsiders. Intranets running on Ethernet, or even faster ATMbased networks are able to offer full-motion video, something most Internet users will not experience for a while.

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    Corporations are rapidly deploying intranets and enabling remote access to them from outside the firewall so that users can gain access to corporate information and databases like price lists, stock availability, order entry, customer records, the corporate directory, or collaborative work-group applications. For mobile executives with electronic organizers, the ability to manage remotely an address book and diary is important. Such devices will increase the options for making connections to the global Internet.

    Mobile customers can already find a wide variety of such wireless devices available.

    Communications

    There are numerous radio attachments and infrared devices, and, of course, communications by way of the cellular network is always an option for those willing to pay the fees. The provision of multimedia services in a mobile environment merges several formerly independent markets: computing, mobile communications, photography, video and audio processing and presentation, music production, and distribution.

    Mobile communications is increasingly becoming a multimedia environment that will be no longer limited to two-way voice and low-medium rate data services. The multimedia environment will extend the provision of several high-rate audio, video, and data services that are now only available through wireline networks. The concept of the mobile voice call will be radically changed as multimedia components are added.

    In addition, the convergence of voice and data is taking place in the mobile environment with some significant advances in technology. The price for mobile data transmission is going to decline in the next few years while the speed of transmission goes up. People The Market for UC 31 will be fully mobile and able to access and use information in data-based applications around the world. These trends are generating a great deal of interest in making sure that mobile wireless computers can attach to the Internet and remain attached even as they move from place to place, establishing new links and moving away from previously established links.

    UMTS Architecture ll Universal Mobile Telecommunication System ll UTRAN, RNC, NodeB Explained

    Key challenges to the mobile supply community over the next decade will be to overcome the problems that this combination poses and to develop packages of services, terminals, and applications that will delight users. This process of convergence has widened to include the field of broadcasting, where much content is produced and distributed via transmitter stations on satellites or the ground or via cable, but also via bi-directional channels like the Internet and mobile Internet e.

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    The underlying concepts for these networks have evolved to include elements of interactivity. This results in an asymmetrical traffic distribution with high capacity for information download and low capacity for the return channel upload, thus providing a certain degree of interactivity. Business opportunities lie in education and learning, location-based services, infotainment, and elsewhere. Because the wireless Internet is an unprecedented phenomenon and the required business models and strategies are yet untested, market estimates vary widely, and entry into this market is often associated with risks.

    There are, however, indicators that provide evidence of its great potential. The mobiles will be data-enabled to a large extent. By the end of the decade, the PC will be only one amongst several different terminals for home access to the Internet, along with televisions, network computers, mobile terminals, and handheld games units.

    As a result of these developments, most fixed networked multimedia services, including information and entertainment services, will likely be packet switched with IP and will have asymmetric handling. This will have significant implications for delivery systems for mobile multimedia services, such as UMTS and IMT [5], because it implies that many mobile multimedia services will be IP-based. This underpins the expectations for the mobile multimedia marketplace and is supported by evidence of three key trends: 1 the increasing mobility of individuals, whether as employees or as individuals; 2 the increasing requirements for responsiveness in business; and 3 the growing demand for communications and access to information while on the move.

    Consequently, many individuals are spending more time traveling, whether for commuting or for pleasure, thus creating significant growth in dead, or unproductive, time in the workday. Meanwhile, increasing competitive pressures are forcing businesses to increase the productivity of their employees, thus placing greater demands on their time and creating a need to make dead time more productive. The increasing popularity of portable computing devices provides evidence that more workers, particularly those in knowledge-based industries, are becoming more mobile, working remotely from their normal base, and making better use of otherwise dead time.

    Positive actions on their part will encourage market take-up through the development and delivery of services that users find affordable, easy to use, and well matched to their needs. The most significant issue that will enable strong market development will be the nature of the regulatory environment governing access to the underlying network infrastructure and the delivery of services over that infrastructure.